Subversion's copy-modify-merge version control model lives and dies on its data merging algorithms—specifically on how well those algorithms perform when trying to resolve conflicts caused by multiple users modifying the same file concurrently. Subversion itself provides only one such algorithm: a three-way differencing algorithm that is smart enough to handle data at a granularity of a single line of text. Subversion also allows you to supplement its content merge processing with external differencing utilities (as described in “外置 diff3”一节), some of which may do an even better job, perhaps providing granularity of a word or a single character of text. But common among those algorithms is that they generally work only on text files. The landscape starts to look pretty grim when you start talking about content merges of non-textual file formats. And when you can't find a tool that can handle that type of merging, you begin to run into problems with the copy-modify-merge model.
Now, as is common in graphic design work, there's a change
in plans, which causes the car's color to be a concern. So Sally
updates her working copy to
HEAD, fires up
her photo-editing software, and sets about tweaking the image so
that the car is now cherry red. Meanwhile, Harry, feeling
particularly inspired that day, decides that the image would
have greater impact if the car also appears to have suffered
greater impact. He, too, updates to
and then draws some cracks on the vehicle's windshield. He
manages to finish his work before Sally finishes hers, and after
admiring the fruits of his undeniable talent, commits the
modified image. Shortly thereafter, Sally is finished with the
car's new finish and tries to commit her changes. But, as
expected, Subversion fails the commit, informing Sally that
her version of the image is now out of date.
Here's where the difficulty sets in. If Harry and Sally were making changes to a text file, Sally would simply update her working copy, receiving Harry's changes in the process. In the worst possible case, they would have modified the same region of the file, and Sally would have to work out by hand the proper resolution to the conflict. But these aren't text files—they are binary images. And while it's a simple matter to describe what one would expect the results of this content merge to be, there is precious little chance that any software exists that is smart enough to examine the common baseline image that each of these graphic artists worked against, the changes that Harry made, and the changes that Sally made, and then spit out an image of a busted-up red Mustang with a cracked windshield!
Of course, things would have gone more smoothly if Harry and Sally had serialized their modifications to the image—if, say, Harry had waited to draw his windshield cracks on Sally's now-red car, or if Sally had tweaked the color of a car whose windshield was already cracked. As is discussed in “拷贝-修改-合并 方案”一节, most of these types of problems go away entirely where perfect communication between Harry and Sally exists.  But as one's version control system is, in fact, one form of communication, it follows that having that software facilitate the serialization of nonparallelizable editing efforts is no bad thing. This is where Subversion's implementation of the lock-modify-unlock model steps into the spotlight. This is where we talk about Subversion's locking feature, which is similar to the “reserved checkouts” mechanisms of other version control systems.
When referring to Subversion's locking feature, one is actually talking about a fairly diverse collection of behaviors, which include the ability to lock a versioned file  (claiming the exclusive right to modify the file), to unlock that file (yielding that exclusive right to modify), to see reports about which files are locked and by whom, to annotate files for which locking before editing is strongly advised, and so on. In this section, we'll cover all of these facets of the larger locking feature.
In the Subversion repository, a lock is a piece of metadata that grants exclusive access to one user to change a file. This user is said to be the lock owner. Each lock also has a unique identifier, typically a long string of characters, known as the lock token. The repository manages locks, ultimately handling their creation, enforcement, and removal. If any commit transaction attempts to modify or delete a locked file (or delete one of the parent directories of the file), the repository will demand two pieces of information—that the client performing the commit be authenticated as the lock owner, and that the lock token has been provided as part of the commit process as a sort of proof that client knows which lock it is using.
To demonstrate lock creation, let's refer back to our example of multiple graphic designers working on the same binary image files. Harry has decided to change a JPEG image. To prevent other people from committing changes to the file while he is modifying it (as well as alerting them that he is about to change it), he locks the file in the repository using the svn lock command.
$ svn lock banana.jpg -m "Editing file for tomorrow's release." 'banana.jpg' locked by user 'harry'. $
There are a number of new things demonstrated in the
previous example. First, notice that Harry passed the
-m) option to
svn lock. Similar to svn
commit, the svn lock command can
take comments (either via
-F) to describe the reason for locking the
file. Unlike svn commit, however,
svn lock will not demand a message by
launching your preferred text editor. Lock comments are
optional, but still recommended to aid communication.
Secondly, the lock attempt succeeded. This means that the file wasn't already locked, and that Harry had the latest version of the file. If Harry's working copy of the file had been out of date, the repository would have rejected the request, forcing Harry to svn update and reattempt the locking command. The locking command would also have failed if the file had already been locked by someone else.
就像你看到的，svn lock打印了锁定成功的确认信息。此时，通过svn status和svn info的输出我们可以看到文件已经锁定。
$ svn status K banana.jpg $ svn info banana.jpg Path: banana.jpg Name: banana.jpg URL: http://svn.example.com/repos/project/banana.jpg Repository UUID: edb2f264-5ef2-0310-a47a-87b0ce17a8ec Revision: 2198 Node Kind: file Schedule: normal Last Changed Author: frank Last Changed Rev: 1950 Last Changed Date: 2006-03-15 12:43:04 -0600 (Wed, 15 Mar 2006) Text Last Updated: 2006-06-08 19:23:07 -0500 (Thu, 08 Jun 2006) Properties Last Updated: 2006-06-08 19:23:07 -0500 (Thu, 08 Jun 2006) Checksum: 3b110d3b10638f5d1f4fe0f436a5a2a5 Lock Token: opaquelocktoken:0c0f600b-88f9-0310-9e48-355b44d4a58e Lock Owner: harry Lock Created: 2006-06-14 17:20:31 -0500 (Wed, 14 Jun 2006) Lock Comment (1 line): Editing file for tomorrow's release. $
The fact that the svn info command,
which does not contact the repository when run against working
copy paths, can display the lock token reveals an important
piece of information about those tokens: they are cached in
the working copy. The presence of the lock token is critical.
It gives the working copy authorization to make use of the
lock later on. Also, the svn status
command shows a
K next to the file (short
for locKed), indicating that the lock token is present.
$ svn delete banana.jpg D banana.jpg $ svn commit -m "Delete useless file." Deleting banana.jpg svn: Commit failed (details follow): svn: Server sent unexpected return value (423 Locked) in response to DELETE\ request for '/repos/project/!svn/wrk/64bad3a9-96f9-0310-818a-df4224ddc35d/\ banana.jpg' $
But Harry, after touching up the banana's shade of yellow, is able to commit his changes to the file. That's because he authenticates as the lock owner and also because his working copy holds the correct lock token:
$ svn status M K banana.jpg $ svn commit -m "Make banana more yellow" Sending banana.jpg Transmitting file data . Committed revision 2201. $ svn status $
Notice that after the commit is finished, svn
status shows that the lock token is no longer
present in working copy. This is the standard behavior of
svn commit—it searches the working
copy (or list of targets, if you provide such a list) for
local modifications and sends all the lock tokens it
encounters during this walk to the server as part of the
commit transaction. After the commit completes successfully,
all of the repository locks that were mentioned are
released—even on files that weren't
committed. This is meant to discourage users from
being sloppy about locking or from holding locks for too long.
If Harry haphazardly locks 30 files in a directory named
images because he's unsure of which files
he needs to change, yet changes only 4 of those files, when he
runs svn commit images, the process will
still release all 30 locks.
no-unlock = yes。
$ svn unlock banana.c 'banana.c' unlocked.
最明显的方式就是因为锁定而不能提交一个文件，最简单的方式是svn status --show-updates：
$ svn status -u M 23 bar.c M O 32 raisin.jpg * 72 foo.h Status against revision: 105 $
In this example, Sally can see not only that her copy of
foo.h is out of date, but that one of the
two modified files she plans to commit is locked in the
O symbol stands for
“Other,” meaning that a lock exists on the file
and was created by somebody else. If she were to attempt a
commit, the lock on
prevent it. Sally is left wondering who made the lock, when,
and why. Once again, svn info has the
$ svn info http://svn.example.com/repos/project/raisin.jpg Path: raisin.jpg Name: raisin.jpg URL: http://svn.example.com/repos/project/raisin.jpg Repository UUID: edb2f264-5ef2-0310-a47a-87b0ce17a8ec Revision: 105 Node Kind: file Last Changed Author: sally Last Changed Rev: 32 Last Changed Date: 2006-01-25 12:43:04 -0600 (Sun, 25 Jan 2006) Lock Token: opaquelocktoken:fc2b4dee-98f9-0310-abf3-653ff3226e6b Lock Owner: harry Lock Created: 2006-02-16 13:29:18 -0500 (Thu, 16 Feb 2006) Lock Comment (1 line): Need to make a quick tweak to this image. $
就像svn info可以检验工作拷贝的对象，它也可以检验版本库的对象，如果svn info的主要参数是工作拷贝路径，所有工作拷贝的缓存信息都会显示，发现了锁定就意味着工作拷贝拥有锁定令牌(如果一个文件被另一个用户在另一个工作拷贝锁定，工作拷贝路径上运行svn info不会显示锁定信息)。如果svn info的主参数是URL，就会反映版本库中最新版本的对象信息，任何对锁定的提及描述了当前对象的锁定。
So in this particular example, Sally can see that Harry locked the file on February 16th to “make a quick tweak.” It being June, she suspects that he probably forgot all about the lock. She might phone Harry to complain and ask him to release the lock. If he's unavailable, she might try to forcibly break the lock herself or ask an administrator to do so.
A repository lock isn't sacred—in Subversion's default configuration state, locks can be released not only by the person who created them, but by anyone. When somebody other than the original lock creator destroys a lock, we refer to this as breaking the lock.
$ svnadmin lslocks /var/svn/repos Path: /project2/images/banana.jpg UUID Token: opaquelocktoken:c32b4d88-e8fb-2310-abb3-153ff1236923 Owner: frank Created: 2006-06-15 13:29:18 -0500 (Thu, 15 Jun 2006) Expires: Comment (1 line): Still improving the yellow color. Path: /project/raisin.jpg UUID Token: opaquelocktoken:fc2b4dee-98f9-0310-abf3-653ff3226e6b Owner: harry Created: 2006-02-16 13:29:18 -0500 (Thu, 16 Feb 2006) Expires: Comment (1 line): Need to make a quick tweak to this image. $ svnadmin rmlocks /var/svn/repos /project/raisin.jpg Removed lock on '/project/raisin.jpg'. $
The more interesting option is allowing users to break
each other's locks over the network. To do this, Sally simply
needs to pass the
--force to the svn
$ svn status -u M 23 bar.c M O 32 raisin.jpg * 72 foo.h Status against revision: 105 $ svn unlock raisin.jpg svn: 'raisin.jpg' is not locked in this working copy $ svn info raisin.jpg | grep URL URL: http://svn.example.com/repos/project/raisin.jpg $ svn unlock http://svn.example.com/repos/project/raisin.jpg svn: Unlock request failed: 403 Forbidden (http://svn.example.com) $ svn unlock --force http://svn.example.com/repos/project/raisin.jpg 'raisin.jpg' unlocked. $
Sally初始的unlock命令失败了，因为她直接在自己的工作拷贝上运行了svn unlock，而这里没有锁定令牌。为了直接从版本库删除锁定，她需要给svn unlock传递URL参数，她的这一次尝试又失败了，因为她不是锁定的拥有者(也没有锁定令牌)。当她使用了
当然，简单的打破锁定也许还不够，在这个例子里，Sally不仅想要打破Harry遗忘的锁定，她也希望自己重新锁定。她可以通过运行svn unlock --force紧接着svn lock，但是有可能有人在这两次命令之间锁定了文件，最简单的方式是窃取这个锁定，将打破和重新锁定变成一种原子操作，为此需要运行svn lock加
$ svn lock raisin.jpg svn: Lock request failed: 423 Locked (http://svn.example.com) $ svn lock --force raisin.jpg 'raisin.jpg' locked by user 'sally'. $
$ svn status K raisin.jpg $ svn status -u B 32 raisin.jpg $ svn update B raisin.jpg $ svn status $
如果版本库锁定被打破了，svn status --show-updates会在文件旁边显示一个
T (sTolen)符号。最终，svn update会注意到所有死掉的锁定并且把它们从工作拷贝中删除掉。
我们已经见到了如何利用svn lock和svn unlock来创建、释放、打破和窃取锁定，这就满足了顺序访问文件的要求，但是浪费时间这个大问题该如何呢？
For example, suppose Harry locks an image file and then begins editing it. Meanwhile, miles away, Sally wants to do the same thing. She doesn't think to run svn status --show-updates, so she has no idea that Harry has already locked the file. She spends hours editing the file, and when she tries to commit her change, she discovers that either the file is locked or that she's out of date. Regardless, her changes aren't mergeable with Harry's. One of these two people has to throw away their work, and a lot of time has been wasted.
Subversion's solution to this problem is to provide a
mechanism to remind users that a file ought to be locked
before the editing begins. The mechanism
is a special property:
that property is attached to a file (regardless of its value,
which is irrelevant), then Subversion will try to use
filesystem-level permissions to make the file read-only—unless,
of course, the user has explicitly locked the file.
When a lock token is present (as a result of running
svn lock), the file becomes read-write.
When the lock is released, the file becomes read-only
$ /usr/local/bin/gimp raisin.jpg gimp: error: file is read-only! $ ls -l raisin.jpg -r--r--r-- 1 sally sally 215589 Jun 8 19:23 raisin.jpg $ svn lock raisin.jpg svn: Lock request failed: 423 Locked (http://svn.example.com) $ svn info http://svn.example.com/repos/project/raisin.jpg | grep Lock Lock Token: opaquelocktoken:fc2b4dee-98f9-0310-abf3-653ff3226e6b Lock Owner: harry Lock Created: 2006-06-08 07:29:18 -0500 (Thu, 08 June 2006) Lock Comment (1 line): Making some tweaks. Locking for the next two hours. $
Users and administrators alike are encouraged to attach
svn:needs-lock property to any file
that cannot be contextually merged. This is the primary
technique for encouraging good locking habits and preventing
Note that this property is a communication tool that works independently from the locking system. In other words, any file can be locked, whether or not this property is present. And conversely, the presence of this property doesn't make the repository require a lock when committing.