## 14.4. roman.py, 第 4 阶段

### 例 14.9. roman4.py

```"""Convert to and from Roman numerals"""

#Define exceptions
class RomanError(Exception): pass
class OutOfRangeError(RomanError): pass
class NotIntegerError(RomanError): pass
class InvalidRomanNumeralError(RomanError): pass

#Define digit mapping
romanNumeralMap = (('M',  1000),
('CM', 900),
('D',  500),
('CD', 400),
('C',  100),
('XC', 90),
('L',  50),
('XL', 40),
('X',  10),
('IX', 9),
('V',  5),
('IV', 4),
('I',  1))

# toRoman function omitted for clarity (it hasn't changed)

def fromRoman(s):
"""convert Roman numeral to integer"""
result = 0
index = 0
for numeral, integer in romanNumeralMap:
while s[index:index+len(numeral)] == numeral:
result += integer
index += len(numeral)
return result
```
 这和 toRoman 的工作模式很相像。你遍历整个罗马数字数据结构（一个元组的元组），与前面不同的是不去一个个搜寻最大的整数，而是搜寻 “最大的”罗马数字字符串。

### 例 14.10. fromRoman 如何工作

```        while s[index:index+len(numeral)] == numeral:
result += integer
index += len(numeral)
print 'found', numeral, 'of length', len(numeral), ', adding', integer```
```>>> import roman4
>>> roman4.fromRoman('MCMLXXII')
found M , of length 1, adding 1000
found CM , of length 2, adding 900
found L , of length 1, adding 50
found X , of length 1, adding 10
found X , of length 1, adding 10
found I , of length 1, adding 1
found I , of length 1, adding 1
1972```

### 例 14.11. 用 romantest4.py 测试 roman4.py 的结果

```fromRoman should only accept uppercase input ... FAIL
toRoman should always return uppercase ... ok
fromRoman should fail with malformed antecedents ... FAIL
fromRoman should fail with repeated pairs of numerals ... FAIL
fromRoman should fail with too many repeated numerals ... FAIL
fromRoman should give known result with known input ... ok
toRoman should give known result with known input ... ok
fromRoman(toRoman(n))==n for all n ... ok
toRoman should fail with non-integer input ... ok
toRoman should fail with negative input ... ok
toRoman should fail with large input ... ok
toRoman should fail with 0 input ... ok```
 这儿有两个令人激动的消息。 一个是 fromRoman 对于所有有效输入运转正常，至少对于你测试的 已知值 是这样。 第二个好消息是， 完备性测试也通过了。 与已知值测试的通过一起来看，你有理由相信 toRoman 和 fromRoman 对于所有有效输入值工作正常（ 尚不能完全相信，理论上存在这种可能性： toRoman 存在错误而导致一些特定输入产生错误罗马数字表示 和 fromRoman 存在相应的错误，把 toRoman 错误产生的这些罗马数字错误地转换为最初的整数。 取决于你的应用程序和你的要求，你或许需要考虑这个可能性。如果是这样，编写更全面的测试用例直到解决这个问题）。
```
======================================================================
FAIL: fromRoman should only accept uppercase input
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "C:\docbook\dip\py\roman\stage4\romantest4.py", line 156, in testFromRomanCase
roman4.fromRoman, numeral.lower())
File "c:\python21\lib\unittest.py", line 266, in failUnlessRaises
raise self.failureException, excName
AssertionError: InvalidRomanNumeralError
======================================================================
FAIL: fromRoman should fail with malformed antecedents
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "C:\docbook\dip\py\roman\stage4\romantest4.py", line 133, in testMalformedAntecedent
self.assertRaises(roman4.InvalidRomanNumeralError, roman4.fromRoman, s)
File "c:\python21\lib\unittest.py", line 266, in failUnlessRaises
raise self.failureException, excName
AssertionError: InvalidRomanNumeralError
======================================================================
FAIL: fromRoman should fail with repeated pairs of numerals
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "C:\docbook\dip\py\roman\stage4\romantest4.py", line 127, in testRepeatedPairs
self.assertRaises(roman4.InvalidRomanNumeralError, roman4.fromRoman, s)
File "c:\python21\lib\unittest.py", line 266, in failUnlessRaises
raise self.failureException, excName
AssertionError: InvalidRomanNumeralError
======================================================================
FAIL: fromRoman should fail with too many repeated numerals
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "C:\docbook\dip\py\roman\stage4\romantest4.py", line 122, in testTooManyRepeatedNumerals
self.assertRaises(roman4.InvalidRomanNumeralError, roman4.fromRoman, s)
File "c:\python21\lib\unittest.py", line 266, in failUnlessRaises
raise self.failureException, excName
AssertionError: InvalidRomanNumeralError
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 12 tests in 1.222s

FAILED (failures=4)```