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6.5. The if Statement

6.5. if 语句

An if statement conditionally executes another statement based on whether a specified expression is true. There are two forms of the if: one with an else branch and one without. The syntactic form of the plain if is the following:

if 语句根据特定表达式是否为真来有条件地执行另一个语句。if 语句有两种形式:其中一种带 else 分支而另一种则没有。根据语法结构,最简单的 if 语句是这样的:

     if (condition)

The condition must be enclosed in parentheses. It can be an expression, such as

其中的 condition 部分必须用圆括号括起来。它可以是一个表达式,例如:

     if (a + b > c) {/* ... */}

or an initialized declaration, such as


     // ival only accessible within the if statement
     if (int ival = compute_value()) {/* ... */}

As usual, statement could be a compound statementthat is, a block of statements enclosed in curly braces.

通常,statement 部分可以是复合语句,即用花括号括起来的块语句。

When a condition defines a variable, the variable must be initialized. The value of the initialized variable is converted to bool (Section 5.12.3, p. 181) and the resulting bool determines the value of the condition. The variable can be of any type that can be converted to bool, which means it can be an arithmetic or pointer type. As we'll see in Chapter 14, whether a class type can be used in a condition depends on the class. Of the types we've used so far, the IO types can be used in a condition, but the vector and string types may not be used as a condition.

如果在条件表达式中定义了变量,那么变量必须初始化。将已初始化的变量值转换为 bool 值(第 5.12.3 节)后,该 bool 值决定条件是否成立。变量类型可以是任何可转换为 bool 型的类型,这意味着它可以是算术类型或指针类型。正如第十四章要提及的,一个类类型能否用在条件表达式中取决于类本身。迄今为止,在所有用过的类类型中,IO 类型可以用作条件,但 vector 类型和 string 类型一般不可用作条件。

To illustrate the use of the if statement, we'll find the smallest value in a vector<int>, keeping a count of how many times that minimum value occurs. To solve this problem, we'll need two if statements: one to determine whether we have a new minimum and the other to increment a count of the number of occurrences of the current minimum value:

为了说明 if 语句的用法,下面程序用于寻找 vector<int> 对象中的最小值,并且记录这个最小值出现的次数。为了解决这个问题,需要两个 if 语句:一个判断是否得到一个新的最小值,而另一个则用来增加当前最小值的数目。

     if (minVal > ivec[i])  { /* process new minVal */ }
     if (minVal == ivec[i]) { /* increment occurrence count */ }

Statement Block as Target of an if

语句块用作 if 语句的对象

We'll start by considering each if in isolation. One of these if statements will determine whether there is a new minimum and, if so, reset the counter and update minVal:

现在单独考虑上述例子中的每个 if 语句。其中一个 if 语句将要决定是否出现了一个新的最小值,如果是的话,则要重置计数器并更新最小值:

     if (minVal > ivec[i]) { // execute both statements if condition is true
          minVal = ivec[i];
          occurs = 1;

The other conditionally updates the counter. This if needs only one statement, so it need not be enclosed in curlies:

另一个 if 语句则有条件地更新计数器,它只需要一个语句,因此不必用花括号起来:

     if (minVal == ivec[i])

It is a somewhat common error to forget the curly braces when multiple statements must be executed as a single statement.


In the following program, contrary to the indentation and intention of the programmer, the assignment to occurs is not part of the if statement:

在下面的程序中,与程序员缩进目的相反,对 occurs 的赋值并不是 if 语句的一部分:

     // error: missing curly brackets to make a block!
     if (minVal > ivec[i])
          minVal = ivec[i];
          occurs = 1; // executed unconditionally: not part of the if

Written this way, the assignment to occurs will be executed unconditionally. Uncovering this kind of error can be very difficult because the text of the program looks correct.

这样写的话,对 occurs 的赋值将会无条件地执行。这种错误很难发现,因为程序代码看起来是正确的。

Many editors and development environments have tools to automatically indent source code to match its structure. It is a good idea to use such tools if they are available.


6.5.1. The if Statement else Branch

6.5.1. if 语句的 else 分支

Our next task is to put these if statements together into an execution sequence. The order of the if statements is significant. If we use the following order

紧接着,我们要考虑如何将那些 if 语句放在一起形成一个执行语句序列。这些 if 语句的排列顺序非常重要。如果采用下面的顺序:

     if (minVal > ivec[i]) {
          minVal = ivec[i];
          occurs = 1;
     // potential error if minVal has just been set to ivec[i]
     if (minVal == ivec[i])

our count will always be off by 1. This code double-counts the first occurrence of the minimum.

那么计数器将永远得不到 1。这段代码只是对第一次出现的最小值重复计数。

Not only is the execution of both if statements on the same value potentially dangerous, it is also unnecessary. The same element cannot be both less than minVal and equal to it. If one condition is true, the other condition can be safely ignored. The if statement allows for this kind of either-or condition by providing an else clause.

这样两个 if 语句不但在值相同时执行起来有潜在的危险,而且还是没必要的。同一个元素不可能既小于 minVal 又等于它。如果其中一个条件是真的,那么另一个条件就可以安全地忽略掉。if 语句为这种只能二选一的条件提供了 else 子句。

The syntactic form of the if else statement is

if else 语句的语法形式为:

     if (condition)

If condition is true, then statement1 is executed; otherwise, statement2 is executed:

如果 condition 为真,则执行 statement1;否则,执行 statement2

     if (minVal == ivec[i])
     else if (minVal > ivec[i]) {
              minVal = ivec[i];
              occurs = 1;

It is worth noting that statement2 can be any statement or a block of statements enclosed in curly braces. In this example, statement2 is itself an if statement.

值得注意的是,statement2 既可以是任意语句,也可以是用花括号起来的块语句。在这个例子里,statement2 本身是一个 if 语句。

Dangling else
悬垂 else

There is one important complexity in using if statements that we have not yet covered. Notice that neither if directly handles the case where the current element is greater than minVal. Logically, ignoring these elements is finethere is nothing to do if the element is greater than the minimum we've found so far. However, it is often the case that an if needs to do something on all three cases: Unique steps may be required if one value is greater than, less than, or equal to some other value. We've rewritten our loop to explicitly handle all three cases:

对于 if 语句的使用,还有一个重要的复杂问题没有考虑。上述例子中,注意到没有一个 if 分支能直接处理元素值大于 minVal 的情况。从逻辑上来说,可以忽略这些元素——如果该元素比当前已找到的最小值大,那就应该没什么要做的。然而,通常需要使用 if 语句为三种不同情况提供执行的内容,即如果一个值大于、小于或等于其他值时,可能都需要执行特定的步骤。为此重写循环部分,显式地处理这三种情况:

     // note: indented to make clear how the else branches align with the corresponding if
     if (minVal < ivec[i])
         { }                       // empty block
     else if (minVal == ivec[i])
     else {                        // minVal > ivec[i]
         minVal = ivec[i];
         occurs = 1;

This three-way test handles each case correctly. However, a simple rewrite that collapses the first two tests into a single, nested if runs into problems:

上述的三路测试精确地控制了所有的情况。然而,简单地把前两个情况用一个嵌套 if 语句实现将会产生问题:

     // oops: incorrect rewrite: This code won't work!
     if (minVal <= ivec[i])
          if (minVal == ivec[i])
     else {      // this else goes with the inner if, not the outer one!
          minVal = ivec[i];
          occurs = 1;

This version illustrates a source of potential ambiguity common to if statements in all languages. The problem, usually referred to as the dangling-else problem, occurs when a statement contains more if clauses than else clauses. The question then arises: To which if does each else clause belong?

这个版本表明了所有语言的 if 语句都普通存在着潜在的二义性。这种情况往往称为悬垂 else 问题,产生于一个语句包含的 if 子句多于 else 子句时:对于每一个 else,究竟它们归属哪个 if 语句?

The indentation in our code indicates the expectation that the else should match up with the outer if clause. In C++, however, the dangling-else ambiguity is resolved by matching the else with the last occurring unmatched if. In this case, the actual evaluation of the if else statement is as follows:

在上述的代码中,缩进的用法表明 else 应该与外层的 if 子句匹配。然而,C++ 中悬垂 else 问题带来的二义性,通过将 else 匹配给最后出现的尚未匹配if 子句来解决。在这个情况下,这个 if else 语句实际上等价于下面的程序:

     // oops: still wrong, but now the indentation matches execution path
     if (minVal <= ivec[i])
         // indented to match handling of dangling-else
         if (minVal == ivec[i])
         else {
             minVal = ivec[i];
             occurs = 1;

We can force an else to match an outer if by enclosing the inner if in a compound statement:

可以通过用花括号将内层的 if 语句括起来成为复合语句,从而迫使这个 else 子句与外层的 if 匹配。

     if (minVal <= ivec[i]) {
         if (minVal == ivec[i])
     } else {
         minVal = ivec[i];
         occurs = 1;

Some coding styles recommend always using braces after any if. Doing so avoids any possible confusion and error in later modifications of the code. At a minimum, it is nearly always a good idea to use braces after an if (or while) when the statement in the body is anything other than a simple expression statement, such as an assignment or output expression.

有些编程风格建议总是if 后面使用花括号。这样做可以避免日后修改代码时产生混乱和错误。至少,无论 if(或者 while)后面是简单语句,例如赋值和输出语句,还是其他任意语句,使用花括号都是一个比较好的做法。

Exercises Section 6.5.1

Exercise 6.5:

Correct each of the following:


     (a) if (ival1 != ival2)
              ival1 = ival2
         else ival1 = ival2 = 0;

     (b) if (ival < minval)
              minval = ival;  // remember new minimum
              occurs = 1;     // reset occurrence counter

     (c) if (int ival = get_value())
              cout << "ival = " << ival << endl;
         if (!ival)
              cout << "ival = 0\n";

     (d) if (ival = 0)
              ival = get_value();

Exercise 6.6:

What is a "dangling else"? How are else clauses resolved in C++?

什么是“悬垂 else”?C++ 是如何匹配 else 子句的?

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